AND WHAT TO WATCH THE BITCH FOR!
METRITIS (INFLAMMATION OF THE UTERUS)
Signs of this condition are as follows:
foul-smelling vaginal discharge
loss of appetite
no interest in the puppies
decreased milk production
If these signs are noted, usually in the first day or two postpartum, a veterinarian should be
consulted. Your dog may have retained a placenta or have suffered some trauma during delivery. Animals who have required assistance with delivery are often predisposed to metritis.
This condition results when the bitch has trouble supporting the calcium demand of lactation. Calcium supplementation predisposes a bitch to this condition. Usually affected animals are small dogs. They demonstrate:
This progresses to:
inability to stand
This condition generally occurs in the first three weeks of lactation and a veterinarian should be consulted immediately.
Eclampsia (convulsions not associated with other cerebral conditions such as epilepsy or cerebral
hemorrhage) can occur in the dog as a result of lactation. The greater the quantity of milk produced, the more likely it is that eclampsia will occur. When calcium is lost in the milk faster than it is absorbed, or than it can be mobilized from the skeletal system, hypocalcemia results. Signs are muscle fasciculations, tetany, and death. The treatment is to slowly (10-15 min) administer a calcium solution intravenously. As you treat, the amplitude of heart sounds will increase, and the heart rate will decrease. If the heart rate increases, or becomes arrhythmic immediately stop calcium administration.
A bitch with a large litter two to four weeks into lactation is especially susceptible to eclampsia. Some would suggest giving extra Ca prior to the time it is needed. However, this does not help, because excess Ca intake decreases the efficiency of Ca absorption from the intestine, inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion, and stimulates thyrocalcitonin secretion. These changes decrease the ability of the dog to mobilize Ca from the bone, when additional Ca is needed; it takes 1 to 3 weeks to reverse the effects. Of course, this is not fast enough, and hypocalcemia and eclampsia occur. Giving Ca when it is needed, during the first week through the fourth or fifth week of lactation, may be helpful; 500 mg of calcium carbonate (about one Tums, the antacid you take for upset stomach) per 5 kg of body weight per day, but only for the bitch in which eclampsia has previously occurred. The best treatment is to get the puppies off the dam as quickly as possible, either onto solid food or a bitch's milk replacer.
MASTITIS (INFLAMMATION OF THE BREASTS)
Normal nursing glands are soft and enlarged. Diseased glands are red, hard, and painful. In general, the bitch does not act sick; the disease is confined to the mammary tissue. The bitch may be sore and discourage the pups from nursing; however, it is important to keep the pups nursing the affected glands. This is not harmful to the puppies and helps flush out the infected material. Hot packing may be helpful.
Most dogs are excellent mothers and problems are few. The basic rule is to seek veterinary care if she seems to feel sick of if she ceases to care for her young. Puppies nurse until they are about six weeks old and then may be adopted by new homes.
NUTRITION DURING LACTATION
This lactating bitch provides an example of the nutritional stresses associated with lactation. The characteristics of the litter which determine the level of nutritional stress on the mother are: the size of the puppies, the number of puppies in the litter, and their age. The peak energy needs of the bitch occur when puppies are 3 to 4 weeks old. If a bitch is nursing more than 4 to 5 puppies she should receive a diet containing 28 to 30% protein and 20 to 25% fat during heavy lactation.
Proper vitamins and trace minerals also must be provided. Supplementation may be necessary, but a proper calcium:phosphorus ratio should be carefully maintained.
These are some observations on feeding the lactating bitch. She should be fed 1.5 times maintenance for the first week, 2 times maintenance for the second, and 2 to 3 times maintenance amounts for the third week of lactation. Ontko and Phillips noted little or no loss of weight when lactating bitches were fed a basal diet of 427 calories per 100 gm. of ration, but a weight loss occurred when bitches nursing four or more puppies were fed a diet containing 310 calories per 100 gm. Therefore, increasing the caloric density of the diet assures improved lactation. Care must be exercised in adding fat or a diet of higher caloric density. Problems in low birth weights and high death rates occur in litters which have only an increased fat percentage. Fat must be balanced by protein increases, so that 17% protein should balance with 7.5% fat, 25% protein should balance with 20% fat, and 29% protein should balance with 30% fat to assure that increased caloric density will not induce protein deficiency. A protein intake of 25 to 50% of the diet on a dry weight basis appears optimal. A commercial maintenance diet should have 2 to 4% animal protein added, such as liver. Increases of fat also make the diet more palatable.
The digestive capacity of the pet must be considered when increasing the ration of a companion animal during lactation. If the quantity of food required exceeds the amount she can eat in one feeding, then divide that into three or four feedings per day.
Most puppies are weaned at 6 to 7 weeks of age. This appears to be the optimum time from both the nutritional and behavioral standpoints. At this age they are sufficiently adapted to their species yet young enough so that they adapt well to people and, therefore, become good pets.
It is helpful to restrict the food intake of the bitch before and during weaning to prevent excessive
distension of the mammary glands and discomfort after weaning, particularly for good milk-producing bitches with large litters. This may be accomplished by separating the bitch from the litter during the day and withholding all food the day before weaning, but reuniting the bitch and pups that night and removing the food from the pups. Then gradually increase the amount fed the bitch after the pups are completely removed so that by several days after weaning she is receiving the amount needed for maintenance.
The behaviour of both lactating cats and their kittens is affected by a protein restricted diet. Vocalization and movement in the home box are both higher in kittens whose mothers are not receiving enough protein in the diet. Nursing
behaviour was abnormal in those queens, also.
The symptoms of pyometra may not be obvious if there is no vaginal discharge (locked pyometra). This is the riskiest type, because the fluid will not drain spontaneously, for three reasons:
- The cervix is closed.
- Progesterone saturation maintains the uterus in a relaxed state as if it were pregnant.
- The horizontal position of the uterine horns does not facilitate spontaneous drainage.
Clinically speaking, pyometra often causes lethargy, increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased urine output (polyuria). This can be complicated by kidney dysfunction due to the toxins produced. The veterinarian can confirm the diagnosis by means of a vaginal smear, abdominal palpation, blood samples, X-rays or ultrasound.
A considerable amount of pus (several litres!) may accumulate.
Medical treatment relies on certain antibiotics and hormones (prostaglandins) that cause the uterus to contract and the cervix to open, thus facilitating drainage.
Unfortunately, this treatment is restricted to bitches that can tolerate it (depending on the seriousness of the disease) and whose owners wish to salvage their ability to breed. In other cases, surgery (removal of the uterus and the pus it contains) is usually indicated to give the best chance for a rapid and permanent recovery.
Go here to our
online page for PYOMETRA
Turner and Gomez, in their 1934 work on the mammary gland of the dog described a condition called "complete pseudopregnancy." In the dog this condition extends for a period comparable to normal pregnancy and the development of the mammary gland includes the growth phase during the first half and the gradual initiation of lactation during the second half of the false pregnancy. Therefore, normal secretory activity is not dependent either upon the
foetus or foetal membranes. The uterus is apparently not necessary either, as a hysterectomized female was given hormones and began the glandular growth phase.
Pseudopregnancy can be very helpful to the breeder who needs a foster mother to nurse orphaned, abandoned, or extra puppies. On the other hand, the home owner with a single, female dog who is not allowed to mate during estrus will frequently have to contend with unwanted milk dripping. Veterinarians can administer bromocriptine to "dry up" the milk.
Behaviourists note nesting behaviour and even straining movements which simulate parturition about nine weeks after
estrus. The dog owner is counselled to discourage nesting behaviour, not to let the dog "nurse" any rolled-up socks she has stolen, and provide interesting outside activities.
FEEDING AND SUPPLEMENTING RECIPES
On-line recipes and assistance.
- TREATING A SICK NEWBORN
A top article by Ed Frawley of Leerburg
Kennels. A MUST READ!
- SWIMMER PUPPY
A very good article that offers lots of immediate
- ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF SAVING A SWIMMER PUPPY
great descriptive article that describes another successful method
- FEEDING WITH A RUBBER GLOVE
successful method, well diagrammed.
- TUBE FEEDING
A terrific article from Chu Lai
- THE FADING PUPPY
By Val Brown Ch. M.I.A.C.E. DBC.
If a puppy gets chilled it will die. If a puppy becomes hypoglycemic it will die. If a puppy becomes dehydrated it will die. Those are the parameters of fading puppies.
- HOMEOPATHY AND THE FADING PUPPY
By Marina Zacharias
- HOMEOPATHIC PREPARATION for the Fading Puppy Syndrome
Natural Rearing Product
- FADING PUPPIES
the Millennium Bulldog Club of Pretoria
Virkon S recommended for disinfection
By PetPlace Veterinarians
Suggesting the use of Lactonoc by Erma J. Kovach
From the Cocker Spaniel Information site
- FADING PUPPIES' IS NOT A DIAGNOSIS
Puppies need 3 things to survive after whelping
An article by John Kohnke BVSc RDA. Consultant to Vetsearch International
INFECTIONS IN YOUNG PUPPIES
From the VetMed Center, by Debra M. Eldredge, DVM
Calcium & Tums!
- THE ORPHANED
experience and worthy suggestions.
- NEWBORN PUPPY
Cautions for the first time breeder. What CAN
- PROBLEMS WITH
An excellent article.
- NEONATAL PUPPY
Explanation of the Canine Herpes
- CANINE ECLAMPSIA
Canine Eclampsia, also erroneously called "milk fever", is a startling and dangerous condition brought on by extremely low levels of calcium in the blood stream. Also called hypocalcemia and puerperal tetany.
- ECLAMPSIA (MILK FEVER OR PUERPERAL TETANY)
Eclampsia is most commonly encountered 1-3 weeks after giving birth, but it can occur anytime, even while pregnant.
- THE HYPOCALCEMIC BITCH
Hypocalcemia (milk fever) occurs in female dogs of all breeds, but most frequently in smaller breeds.
- DYSTOCIA AND CARING FOR NEWBORN PUPS
Dystocia is the inability of the bitch to expel the foetus through the birth canal without assistance.
Umbilical and Inguinal Hernias.
- MILK REPLACER
Recipes for general homemade puppy formula and
'puppy booster' formula for weak or otherwise compromised puppies.
- FOLIC ACID, CLEFT
PALATES & WHELPING PROBLEMS
This really gives food for
thought! An excellent article by Tania Coquhoun, from the Boston Terrier News
OF THE ORPHANED PUPPY
post-birthing first aid.
- THE UMBILICAL
Crimping and cutting the cord - descriptive
& POST-NATAL CONCERNS
Whelping and the care of newborn
puppies and the post parturient bitch.
OF PUPPY HOOD
Causes of puppy deaths, and research into the
HOW TO RAISE THEM
Fantastic helpful article by Race Foster, DVM & Jennifer Prince, DVM.
REARING TOY DOGS
One of the best articles I have read!
MADE BOTTLES & TEATS FOR HAND REARING PUPS
I personally can
highly recommend these products!
PUPPIES (Pectus Excavatum)
This is a condition of 'so called' flat chested puppies. They usually die anywhere from two days to four weeks of age. More often, sooner than later.
coverage by Fred Lanting
SWIMMER PUPPIES (PECTUS EXCAVATUM)
This is a condition of 'so called' flat chested puppies. They usually die anywhere from two days to four weeks of age. More often, sooner than later.
The condition is not necessarily hereditary, even though it may occur repeatedly in the litters of one bitch.
Colostrum is vital for the health and immunity of newborns, but research shows that it may also have a role to play later in a puppy's life.
BIRTH DEFECTS: CLEFT PALATE — WHY AND WHEN
of the causes of some problems - by Fred Lanting
CONGENITAL CLEFT PALATE AND VITAMIN A
Cleft palate is a common abnormality seen in newborn cats, dogs and other species. One possible cause is excessive vitamin A intake during pregnancy.
CLEFT PALATE AND VITAMIN OR FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTS
Too many supplements given to pregnant animals may be a major cause of the development of congenital cleft palate in cats and dogs
WHAT IS RICKETS?
Rickets is a condition that causes deformities - swelling of the joints and bending of the long bones in young growing animals.
THE NEWBORN PUPPY
Take care if tube feeding ....
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF COMPLICATIONS AFFECTING DELIVERY (WHELPING)
Early recognition of warning signs followed by immediate medical treatment goes far in preventing fatality to the dam as well as increasing the survival of the puppies.
you want to know!
PYOMETRA by DANIEL A.
DEGNER, DVM, DIPLOMATE ACVS
This is the best article I have seen on
PYOMETRA by CLAIRE
Another excellent article, complete with graphical
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex (Uterine infection, pus-filled uterus).
CANINE NEONATAL IMMUNOLOGY
A discussion of the immune status of a baby puppy
SAVING A PUPPY'S LIFE
is an excellent article that every breeder should read.
NEONATAL VIRAL INFECTIONS OF PUPS: CANINE HERPESVIRUS AND MINUTE VIRUS OF CANINES (CANINE PARVOVIRUS-1)
Experience has taught many breeders who had accepted neonatal pup death rates of 15 - 25% that simple management could greatly reduce mortality
SPECIFIC DISEASE CONDITIONS IN PUPPIES
Know before you breed!
POST OPERATIVE CARE OF THE BITCH AND PUPPIES
Sometimes there is a need to intervene when it comes to whelping and the bitch needs a
PREGNANCY AND TRANSMAMMARY TRANSFER OF HOOKWORM INFECTION TO PUPPIES
In the dog, Ancylostoma hookworms and Toxocara ascarids remain as the 2 major parasitic diseases due largely to their ability to use the transmammary and transplacental routes to move from the mother to the newborn puppy.
DEHYDRATION AND FLUID THERAPY IN THE PUPPY
Dehydration or fluid loss is a frequent problem in puppies younger than six weeks.
PREPUBERAL GONADECTOMY - Early-Age Neutering of Dogs and Cats
Information on the issue of neutering very young dogs and cats. The document discusses the risks and benefits, propensity to disease, growth, obesity, urinary tract health, inflammation of the penis, prepuce and vulva, and surgical and anaesthetic considerations.
CANINE AND FELINE CRYPTORCHIDISM
Discusses cryptorchidism, where either one or both of the testicles is not present in the scrotum, in cats and dogs. The document includes a discussion on diagnosis and treatment, and colour photographs.
Early-age neutering of Dogs and Cats
- PUPPY DEVELOPMENT
- PUPPY APTITUDE
Written and developed by Joachim & Wendy Volhard
and reprinted on the Golden Retriever site.
- KIDS AND
Bringing a new puppy home, and more!
For those that choose to think for
A new product that helps
solve the feeding problems with baby puppies!
ON VACCINATIONS & IMMUNITY
good list of FAQ's from Pet Education Center.
- PUPPY PAPERS,
GUARANTEES & CONTRACTS
The why's, when's, and know-
how's....by Elena Smith. Excellent.
REARING - A GUIDE FOR THE NEW OWNER
REARING 2 - NEW PUPPIES & SOCIALIZATION
REARING 3 - NEW PUPPY TRAINING
REARING 4 - CHEWING & OTHER DESTRUCTIVENESS IN PUPPIES & DOGS
articles by Dr. Jeff Feinman, VMD, Home Vet.
ON THE REPRODUCTION & CARE OF THE YOUNG
advice from the Pet Education Center.
Well worth reading! By Susan
G. Wynn, DVM.
ABC'S OF HOUSEBREAKING
Down to earth article from the
Shih Tzu Breeder site.
This article relates to Italian
Greyhounds by Kato Kennels.
TRAINING YOUR PUPPY
A highly successful
method of training.
TRAINING YOUR PUPPY
Great article from
the American Dog Trainers Network.
SOCIALIZATION & HABITUATION
the Association of Pet Behaviour Counsellors
Wash day for the
PUPPY RULE BOOK
Great description of
several social styles of dogs and humans.
- SENSORY, EMOTIONAL, & SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE
Dr. Joël Dehasse, Behaviourist Veterinarian,
illuminates the various phases of canine development and how they may
be positively influenced.
"A practice that was started many years ago and that lacks scientific validity or verification is annual re-vaccinations." by Don Hamilton, DVM
No negative data reported with an early
- DIARRHOEA IN PUPPIES
READ THIS ARTICLE if you are having this problem with your pups!
- HOW TO MAKE A
PUPPY PEN OUT OF PVC
Full illustrated instructions.
- FEEDING THE PUPPIES AT BABY AGE AND AT THE FOLLOWING GROWTH STAGES
From the delivery and to the end of sucking period the puppy's development mainly depends on proper feeding of the lactating bitch, especially in the first two weeks....
- DISORDERS OF MINERAL METABOLISM IN PUPPIES AND JUVENILE DOGS
The most intensive growth in large breeds continues until the puppies are 7 months. This is a crucial period when correct diet is essential for the puppy's health. Insufficient feeding inevitably causes growth and development disorders.
- CONSEQUENCES OF EXCESSIVE CALCIUM CONTENT
At constantly high level of Calcium in food the level of parathormone secretion falls and as a result osseous and cartilaginous tissues stop changing normally; bones become thicker and more dense.
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR PUPPY NUTRITION
If any puppy's rapid development is retarded from an insufficient diet, those losses may never be fully recovered.
CRITICAL PERIODS OF CANINE DEVELOPMENT
An excellent on-line article that every breeder/owner should read! this covers the stages that a puppy goes through since birth.
TOY BREED PUPPIES & CALCIUM/PHOSPHORUS
Why supplement Toy breed puppies with Calcium/Phosphorus...
A BALANCED DOG?
IT'S ALL SET IN THE FIRST WEEKS!
From its birth to its first steps inside your house, a puppy must experience a whole variety of experiences, which will allow it to be later a balanced adult dog. Make sure that this stage was properly managed by the breeder.
TYLAN RECIPE FOR PUPPY
Recipe for administration "Tylan" to litters
THE UNFORTUNATE POPULARITY OF FEAR
There is a practice of overstating and even abusing the behavioral concept of "fear period."
SENSORY, EMOTIONAL, AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE YOUNG DOG
Many behavioral problems in dogs arise from a failure to recognize social and environmental constraints during their growth.
Puppy bitches often suffer from a cluster of symptoms including cystitis, vaginal inflammation, vaginal discharge and sometimes urine scalding and dermatitis of the skin around the vulva
ISSUES REGARDING CASTRATION IN DOGS
Politically correct conventional wisdom is not necessarily biologically correct. Also, old wives tales regarding
testicles and behavioral matters are often just that.
EARLY SPAY AND NEUTER
Routinely, ovariohysterectomies and castrations in the dog have been recommended at six months in females and sometimes as late as ten months to a year in males.
MY DOG HAS A RETAINED TESTICLE. SHOULD I HAVE HIM CASTRATED?
The testes are the male reproductive glands that normally start off positioned in the abdomen as embryo (fetal) development progresses during pregnancy (gestation).
A BALANCED DOG?
It's all set in the first weeks
May 2003 WASHINGTON (AP) --Veterinarians now can offer an alternative to surgery to neuter puppies.
Called Neutersol, it's a shot administered directly into the testicles of puppies at the right age for neutering. The ingredients -- the amino acid l-arginine and a zinc salt -- cause the testicles and prostate to atrophy.
The alternative, surgically removing the testicles, guarantees sterility. In a study of 224 dogs, Neutersol did almost as well: Semen analysis showed only one sterilization failure, said Dr. Melanie Burson of the Food and Drug Administration.
The FDA approved Neutersol in March, but did not announce the approval until Monday.
A type of chemical castration already is available for humans. Sex offenders often are sentenced to regular injections of hormones that deplete testosterone. But that's not permanent sterilization.
The new method for dogs is permanent, but some testosterone production continues because it's not hormonally driven, Burson said. So unlike surgical castration, Neutersol may not eliminate unwanted male behaviors such as roaming, marking and aggression, the FDA warned.
Pet overpopulation is a serious problem, and scientists have struggled to find ways to make animals infertile. Some were dangerous either for the animal or for the veterinarian administering them, said Bruce Addison, founder of Addison Biological Laboratory of Columbia, Missouri, which is selling Neutersol.
For some reason, Neutersol ingredients are toxic to cells when injected directly into the testicles but not other parts of the body, Addison said.
It is crucial for vets to administer the shot properly, and for owners to care for the puppy during the following week to avoid ulceration and infection of the injection site, the FDA said.
Scientists now are studying whether Neutersol can safely sterilize older dogs and cats, Addison said.
PUPPY STRANGLES (Juvenile cellulitis)
Juvenile cellulitis (also known as puppy strangles) is a common disease affecting puppies from 3 weeks to 12 months old. It is most often seen in dachshunds, retrievers, and pointers. It can also affect other littermates.
The most common sign is an enlargement of the lymph nodes of the neck but skin lesions of the head and neck are usually noticed first. In some cases, fever or a lack of eating is also present.
Juvenile cellulitis may be fatal if not treated with a course of steroids. Therefore, anyone with a dog that presents these symptoms should visit their veterinarian as soon as possible to begin treatment.