Ixodes uriae White, 1852, p, 210.Cooley and Kohls, 1945, pp. 223-6, figs. 88, 87. Dumbleton, 1953, pp. 14-15, pl. 2, figs. 13, 14.

Hyalomma puta, Pickard-Cambridge, 1878, p. 222, pl. xiii, fig. 4.

Ixodes borealis Kramer and Neuman, 1883, p. 518.

Ixodes fibriatus Kramer and Neuman, 1883, p. 518.

Ixodes putus Neumann, 1899, pp. 126-7, figs. 7-9. Nuttall and Warburton, 1911, pp. 256-261, figs. 254-60.Nuttall, 1912, p. 60.fig. 9. Ferguson, 1925, p. 28. Fielding, 1926, pp. 35---7,fig. 8. Johnston, 1937, pp. 7-10.Taylor and Murray, 1946, pp. 60-3, figs. 63-9.

Ixodes (Ceratixodes) putus Pomerantzev. Anastos, 1950, pp. 57-8.

Ceratixodes putus Neumann. 1902, pp. 117-18, fig. 4. Wheeler, 1906, pp. 415-16, figs. 25, 26.

Ceratixodes uriae Oudemans, 1936, p. 796. Schulze, 1938, pp. 12-17. Zumpt, 1952, pp.12-15. Arthur, 1953, pp. 161-72; IM6b, pp. 278-80, figs. 27-29.


Fig. 2, a-c

Fig 2.- I. uriae, male (from Cooley and Kohls 1945): a, capitulum and body (dorsal view); b, capitulum and body (ventral view) with lateral view of palp; c, hypostome



A medium-sized tick readily recognized by the upturned, pointed palpi and the posterior fringe of 5 tufts of hair; hypostome rudimentary, denticles faintly indicated, 111; ventral plates prominent, an additional plate each side of median plate; coxae unarmed; tarsi tapering gradually.


Body.-Length 3.2-3.4 mm, wider behind than in front, the lateral borders parallel for posterior two-thirds; marginal body fold narrow; posteriorly with 5 ridges or lobes bearing tufts of long, strong hairs (really attached to ventral plate), and a small tuft of similar hairs arising from marginal fold on each side and anterior to the large, lateral, posterior tuft; otherwise hairs short, pale, and scattered.

Capitulum.-Short, about 0.63-0.66 mm in length; basis dorsally 0.54 mm wide, posterior margin straight, no cornua, posterolateral margins straight and a little divergent anteriorly, basis ventrally rounded posteriorly, no auriculae; palpi much longer than mouthparts, article 1 rounded and conspicuous, articles 2 and 3 indistinctly separated, curving convergently and pointed distally, article 4 (ventrally) arising far back from apex of article 3, with some small hairs.

Hypostome rudimentary, much shorter than palpi, 0 .16 mm in length, broad, bilobed, with faint indications of 6 teeth arranged 1/1.

Scutum.-Broadly oval, 2.9-3 - 0 mm by 2-0-2.2 mm, surface convex, posterolateral margins a little concave; posterior margin somewhat flattened; punctations numerous, relatively fine, unequal; cervical grooves distinct, diverging posteriorly to reach a large shallow depression on either side; emargination deep; scapulae bluntly pointed.

Genital aperture.-In first intercoxal space.

Ventral plates.-Pregenital plate wider than long, semilunar; median plate somewhat triangular terminating opposite coxa IV, widest at base and a little more than twice as long as broad, with a slightly longer contiguous plate on each side, pointed anteriorly and convex externally; anal plate rectangular, rounded posteriorly, does not include anus; adanal plates somewhat rectangular, the anterior and posterior margins convex; epimeral plates somewhat smaller; margins of anal, adanal, and epimeral plates extending posteriorly and furnished with long, bristle-like hairs; median and its accompanying lateral plates faintly punctate; anal, adanal, and epimeral plates with distinct punctations.

Spiracular plates.-Suboval, the longer axis transverse.

Legs.-Relatively stout, length moderate; coxae contiguous, surface faintly punctate, unarmed; trochanters unarmed; tarsi tapering gradually.


Fig. 3, a-h


Body with numerous hairs dorsally and ventrally; capitulum relatively small, palpi wide apart, curving towards mouthparts, widest distally and clavate; hypostome dentition 212; scutum widest near anterior end, with numerous punctations, emargination shallow; coxae unarmed, tarsi terminating somewhat abruptly.


Body.-Unfed specimens 4.1 by 3.0 mm, engorged specimens 11.8 by 7.2 mm; oval, spiracular plates visible from above; dorsally and ventrally with numerous long hairs, which 'May be absent or scarce in the anterior, median ventral region and from an area posterior to anus.

Capitulum.-Length 0.6 -0. 7 mm; basis dorsally 0.54-0.60 mm wide, posterior margin a little convex, posterolateral angles rounded, no cornua, posterolateral margins divergent anteriorly; porose areas well defined, large, broadly oval, the longer axis transverse, interval narrow; basis ventrally rounded posteriorly, no auriculae; palpi set far apart, curving towards mouthparts, article 1 large, rounded, articles 2 and 3 indistinctly separated, widest distally giving palpi a clavate appearance, article 4 often prominent from above.

Hypostome about 0.40-0.42 mm in length, sides subparallel, apex rounded, dentition 2/2 of strong, almost equal, mildly pointed teeth.

Fig. 3-I. uriae, female: a, capitulum (dorsal view); b, capitulum (ventral view); c. tarsus 1; d, tarsus IV; c, scutum; f, spiracular plate; g, coxae; h, hypostome.

Scutum.-Ionger than wide, 1.4-1.7 mm by l.1-1.2 mm, widest near anterior end, glossy, convex between cervical grooves; posterolateral margins slightly sinuous or convex, posterior, angle rounded; punctations numerous, unequal, fairly evenly distributed, frequently confluent in places laterally; cervical grooves well defined, broad and divergent posteriorly to attain the posterolateral margins. emargination shallow; scapulae short, rounded.

Genital aperture.-In second intercoxal space.

Genital grooves.-Subparallel for about half the length, then divergent.

Anal grooves.-Divergent posteriorly.

Spiracular plates.-Suboval, the longer axis transverse, 0.48 by 0.41 mm.

Legs.-Length moderate; coxae unarmed, coxae I-III somewhat triangular, coxa IV rounded; tarsi with subterminal humps, tarsus 10.79-1.07 mm in length, tarsus IV 0 - 86-I. 1 mm in length.


Fig. 4, a-g


Palpi and shape of scutum as in female; hypostome dentition 2/2; coxae and anal grooves as in female.

Fig. 4- I. uriae, nymph: a, capitulum (dorsal view); b, capitulum (ventral view); c, scutum; d, hypostome; e, coxae; f, tarsus 1; g, tarsus IV.


Body.-Unfed specimens 1 - 1 by 1 - 0 mm, widest in region of spiracles which are situated towards the posterior end; some scattered pale hairs on dorsum, most numerous laterally; engorged specimens up to 3.4 by 2.1 mm, oval.

Capitulum.-length about 0.36 mm; basis dorsally 0.32 mm wide, as in female, palpal article 1 conspicuous, about 0.07 mm in length, articles 2 and 3 about 0.2 mm in length, appearance of palpi much as in female, except that increase in width distally more gradual than in female.

Hypostome about 0.22 mm in length, sides parallel, apex rounded; dentition 2/2 of about 9-10 strong teeth.

Scutum.-Shape as in female, 0.80-0.85 mm by 0.60-0.71 mm; punctations mainly fine, evenly distributed; cervical grooves well defined, reaching posterolateral margins, emargination very shallow.

Spiracular plate.-Suboval, the longer axis transverse, 0.35 by 0.27 mm.

Anal grooves.-Ill-defined, divergent posteriorly.

Legs.-As in female; tarsus I 0.43 mm in length; tarsus IV 0 - 40 mm in length.



Scutum as in female; palpi as in female; dentition 212, coxae unarmed.


Body.-Engorged specimens broadly oval, 2.14 by 1.60 mm, hairs few, short.

Capitulum.-Length 0.21 mm; basis dorsally rectangular, 0.20 mm wide; basis ventrally with surface convex, posterior margin rounded; palpi in appearance as in female, about 0.17 mm in length, article 4 prominent dorsally.

Hypostome broad, rounded apically; dentition 2/2 of 6-8 teeth.

.Scutum.-Shape as in female, 0.44--0.50 mm by 0.32-0.37 mm, surface finely granulated, median fields convex; cervical grooves well defined and extending to posterolateral margin.

Anal grooves.-Faint, divergent posteriorly.

Legs.-Coxae unarmed; tarsi tapering gradually, tarsus 1 about 0. 28 mm in length, tarsus IV about 0.31 mm in length.

Hosts and Distribution

I. uriae is a widely distributed parasite of sea birds in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Neumann (1911) recorded it from King I. and suggested this locality as being in British Columbia. The record probably refers to King Is., Bass Strait, Tas. (Nuttall and Warburton 1911), and specimens from this locality have been seen by the present author. The species is common in the Antarctic (Johnston 1937; Dumbleton 1953).

The specimens seen in this revision were from various sea birds on Macquarie and Heard Is., and from 'Tasmanian penguin", King Is., 12.ix.27, 1E , 1 o, and from "nests of wandering albatross", Five Islands Group, N.SW., 6 E E .


The validity of the name I. uriae for this species is discussed by Cooley and Kohls (1945). These workers and also Zumpt (1952) considered I. eudyptidis a synonym of I. uriae, but this opinion is not shared by either Dumbleton (1953) or Arthur (1955a), both of whom considered it a good species.

[Ixodes uriae is known to carry Borrelia garinii, a Lyme disease organism, and thus is potentially able to spread this bacterium via transoceanic migratory birds]



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