Ixodes simplex Neumann, 1906, pp. 197-8. Nuttall and Warburton, 1911, pp. 207-5. Bedford, 1934, p. 89, fig. 36.

Ixodes simplex simplex Arthur, 1956a, pp. 186-93, figs. 24-31, 33-38, 40-43. Hoogstraal. 1956, pp. 563-6, pl. Ixvi, figs. 230, 231. Anon. 1957, pp. 23-4. pl. 37.

The male. of this species is unknown.


Fig. 10, a-h


Palpi short, clavate; porose areas depressed with large scattered pits: hypostome dentition 3/3 and 2/2; scutum longer than broad with sparse, fine punctations; legs moderate in length, coxae unarmed, tarsi slender: found on bats.


Body.-Partly engorged specimens, broadly oval, 4.4-4.6 mm by 4.3-4.5 mm; hairs relatively long, dense dorsally, particularly laterally, sparse ventrally; posterolateral and median grooves not well defined.

Capitulum.- Length 0.5 mm; basis dorsally 0.38 mmwide, posterior margin a little sinuous, elevated medianly, no cornua, posterolateral margins slightly curved; basis ventrally with a slightly rounded posterior margin and with triangular ridges just posterior to basal article of palpi; porose areas large, subcircular, depressed, the pits relatively large, and scattered, the interval very narrow ; palpi short, 0.33 mm in length and with a maximum width of 0.12 mm, clavate, the external margin straight, suture between articles 2 and 3 indistinct, article 2 0.16 mm long, article 3 0.14 mm long.

Hypostome bluntly pointed, 0.18 mm in length, dentition with 1 row- of 4/4. 4 rows of 3/3 distally, the apical rows minute, then 2 rows of 2/2 and 1row of 1/1.

Scutum.-Longer than wide, 1.12-1.14 mm by 0.79-0.83 mm, widest slightly anterior to mid-length and narrowing appreciably posteriorly, depressed adjacent to lateral angles; anterolateral margins concave, posterolateral margins straight or slightly convex; punctations fine, sparse, scattered, the depressed are areas near lateral angles wrinkled; emargination almost obsolete; scapulae rounded, small: some hairs present mainly in anterior and anterolateral fields.

Genital aperture --At level of coxa III.

Anal grooves.-Relatively narrowly rounded anteriorly markedly divergent posteriorly.

Spiracular plate.-Subcircular or broadly- oval, the longer axis transverse, the anterior margin somewhat flattened, 0.24 by 0.27 mm.

Legs.-Moderate in length; coxae unarmed; tarsi slender, tapering gradually tarsus I 0.73 mm in length, tarsus IV 0.74 mm in length.



As for the female.


Body.-Measurements 2.3-2.6 mm by 1.8-2.3 mm, with scattered, pale hairs

Capitulum.-Length 0.30-0.32 mm; basis dorsally 0.26 mm wide, posterior margin straight or slightly convex, posterolateral angles rounded, no cornua, posterolateral margins slightly curved; basis ventrally with a mild waist, no auriculae, posterior margin somewhat rounded; palpi nearly straight externally, curved internally, article 1 rounded and narrow, articles 2 and 3 with indistinct suture narrow at base and gradually widening distally, about 0.18 mm long, article 3 about 0.09 mm long.

Hypostome broad basally, curving gently to a blunt point apically, length about 0.12 mm; denticles indistinct but apparently 1 row of 4/4, 3 rows of 3/3, 3 rows of 2/2, and 1 row of 1/1.

Scutum.-Longer than wide, 0.53-0.61 mm by 0.46-0.52 mm, and widest just anterior to mid-length; glossy; lateral fields depressed and with rugae, punctations otherwise fine and uniformly distributed; cervical grooves distinct. more obvious posteriorly where they are divergent and almost attain the posterior margin of the scutum; no lateral carinae; emargination shallow; scapulae shallow and rounded.

Anal grooves.-A little divergent posteriorly.

Spiracular plate.-Broadly oval or subcircular, the longer axis transverse 0.11-0.13 mm by 0.13-0.16 mm.

Legs.-Slender and relatively long; coxae unarmed; tarsi tapering gradually tarsus I 0.46-0.48 mm long, tarsus IV 0.46-0.50 mm long.


The larva has been described by Bedford (1934) and by Arthur (1956a). The diagnostic characters include: basis capituli as in nymph; scutum slightly longer than wide, finely punctate, cervical grooves not attaining posterolateral margins; coxae as in nymph; tarsus I 0.13 mm in length.

Hosts and Distribution

The specimens identified by the author as this subspecies are from "bat" Lismore, N.S.W., 17.viii.1958, 3 females; from Miniopterus schreibersii,* Narrangullen Cave, Wee Jasper, N.S.W., 9.x.19:17, 2 oo; and from M. blepotis, Teviotbrook, Qld., 10.x.1957, 1 o.

*This is the host name shown on the legend and probably refers to M. schreibersii blepotis


Arthur (1956a), after an examination of world-wide material, considered that there were two subspecies of I.simplex, namely I.simplex simplex and a new subspecies I.simplex africanus. The distribution of the former subspecies as given by Arthur (1956a), Hoogstraal (1956), and Anon (1957) includes France, Greece, Palestine, Belgian Congo, Kenya, North Africa, Cape Colony India, Japan, and Shanghai. This subspecies is now also recorded from Australia.


Roberts FHS (1960): A systematic study of the Australian species of the genus Ixodes (Acarina: Ixodidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 8:392-485.


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