from Roberts FHS (1960): A systematic study of the Australian species of the genus Ixodes (Acarina: Ixodidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 8:392-485.

Ixodes eudyptidis Maskell, 1885, pp. 18-20, pl. viii, figs. 12-14. Neumann, 1899, pp. 128-9; 1904, p. 451 (not var. signatus). Nuttall, 1916, pp. 320-7. Ferguson, 1925, p. 29. Fielding, 1926, pp. 37-8, fig. 9. Johnston, 1937, pp. 10-1I. Taylor and Murray, 1946, pp. 44-6, figs. 54, 55. Dumbleton, 1953, pp. 11-13, pl. 3, figs. 1-8. Arthur, 1955a, P. 18, fig. 1.

Ixodes praecoxalis Neumann, 1899, pp. 121-2.

Ixodes intermedius Neumann, 1899, pp. 132-3.

Ixodes neumanni Nuttall and Warburton, 1911, pp. 217-20, figs. 213, 214. Arthur, 1956b. p. 301, fig. 69.

The male of this species is unknown.



Scutum longer than wide and widest anteriorly; basis capituli rectangular, the posterior margin elevated, particularly medianly, posterolateral angles rounded and elevated, but no cornua; porose areas occupying most of basis, interval very narrow and elevated; auriculae present; palpi short, the outer margin straight, the inner margin constricted at junction of articles 2 and 3; hypostome dentition 4/4, 3/3, and 2/2; anal grooves mildly constricted posteriorly; all coxae with external spurs, coxa 1 with broad curved internal spur; trochanters with spurs, reduced and sometimes lacking on trochanter IV; tarsi tapering gradually.


Body-Semi-engorged, 7.1 by 5.1 mm; engorged, 10.8 by 5.4 min to 11.2 by 5.9 mm; broadly oval; posterolateral and median grooves well defined; hairs short, pale, scattered.

Capitulum.-0-62-0-74 mm in length; basis dorsally rectangular, 0.50-0.54 mm wide; posterior margin elevated particularly medianly, the posterolateral angles rounded and elevated, but no cornua; posterolateral margins slightly curved; porose areas occupying most of basis, pear-shaped to oval, the longer axis transverse, the interval elevated, greatly reduced; basis ventrally rounded posteriorly, auriculae well developed and salient; palpi short and broad, 0.55-0-60 mm in length, narrow at base and broadening rapidly to a width about one-third the length, with a broadly rounded apex, outer margin straight, inner margin subparallel with outer margin, indented at junction of articles 2 and 3, article 1 transverse with dorsal anteroposterior ridge, articles 2 and 3 0.46-0.51 mm in length, article 3 about as long as or a little longer than article 2.

Fig. I-I. eudyptidis, female: a, capitulum (dorsal view); b, capitulum (ventral view); c, scutum; d anal grooves; e, hypostome; f, coxae and trochanters; g, tarsus IV; h, tarsus 1; i, spiracular plate.

Hypostome.- 0 36. 42 mm in length, apex rounded, clavate, median ventral area unarmed almost to tip; dentition 1-2 rows of 5/5, 4-5 rows of 4/4, 2 rows of 3/3, and 6 rows of 2/2.

Scutum.-Longer than wide, 1.3-1.5 mm by 1.0-1.2 mm and widest a little anterior to mid-length, convex; anterolateral margins convex, posterolateral margins almost straight or a little concave, posterior angle broadly rounded; punctations fine and scattered, some rugae along margins, particularly along anterior and anterolateral margins; cervical grooves attaining posterolateral margins, moderately deep and convergent anteriorly, becoming shallow and divergent posteriorly; emargination almost lacking; scapulae very shallow, rounded; hairs sparse, most numerous in anterior median and lateral fields.

Genital aperture.-At level of posterior margin of coxa II or in second intercoxal space.

Genital grooves.-Divergent to about level of anus, then gently convergent.

Anal grooves-Rounded in front and mildly constricted behind.

Spiracular plate.-Broadly oval to subcircular, the longer axis transverse, 0.37-0-43 mm by 0.43-0-46 mm; macula anterior to centre.

Legs.-Slender and of moderate length, joints pale., all coxae with blunt external spurs, largest on coxa I and very small on coxa 1V, coxa 1 with broad, curved, internal spur; trochanters I-III with well-defined ventral, blunt, external spurs, trochanter 1V with a very small, more pointed spur or unarmed; tarsi tapering gradually, tarsus 1 0.83-0.93 mm in length, tarsus IV, 0-8-0.9 mm in length.



Capitulum as in female, but indentation of inner margin of palpi not conspicuous; hypostome dentition 313 and 2/2; scutum as in female; coxae and tro. chanters as in female; anal grooves mildly constricted behind.


Body.-Semi-engorged, 2.1 by 1.5 mm; engorged, 3.1 by 2.2 mm; widest immediately anterior. to spiracular plates; some scattered, minute, pale hairs.

Capitulum-Length 0.37-0.40 mm; basis dorsally as in female, 0.25-0.27 mm wide; basis ventrally with well-defined auriculae; palpi 0.28-0.31 mm long with maximum width of about 0.09 mm, outer margin straight, indentation on inner margin at junction of articles 2 and 3 not as conspicuous as in female, article 3 about as long as article 2; hypostome broadly rounded apically, dentition 313, then 212 basally.

Scutum.-0.64 by. 0.50 mm to 0.70 by 0.54 mm; shape, cervical grooves, emargination, and scapulae as in female; punctations fine, scattered.

Anal groove.-As in female.

Spiracular plate-Oval, the longer axis transverse, 0.13 by 0.10 mm.

Legs.-As in female, tarsus 1 0.37-0-40 mm in length, tarsus IV 0.36-0.38 mm in length.


A description of the larva is given by Dumbleton (1953), the essential features being: basis capituli without cornua; hypostome dentition mainly 3/3 and 1/2; scutum subtriangular, wider than long and widest anterior to mid-length; coxae I-III with external spurs, coxae I-II with slight internal spurs; trochanters without spurs.

Hosts and Distribution

Records of I. eudyptidis by Maskell (1885) and Neumann (1899) (I. eudyptidis, I. praecoxalis, and I. intermedius) are from New Zealand. Nuttall and Warburton (1911) (I. neumanni) and Dumbleton (1953) also reported it from this country. The hosts given by these workers are Aestrelata cooki, Phalocrocorax sp., P. carbo, Eudyptes pachyrhynchus, Eudyptula minor, E. albosignata, Pterodroma cooki, Chlidonias albistriata, Larus novae-hollandiae, and "wild duck", "penguin", small sea bird", and "pigeon gull".

Specimens under this name have also been recorded from Australia by Nuttall (1916), the host being E. minor and the localities Tollgates I. and Long Bay, N.S.W., Flinders L, Tas., and Fremantle, W.A. What is considered to be this species was seen by the author (2 99 and 13 oo) from E. minor, Little Green L, Ferneaux Group, Bass Strait, January 1952.


Nuttall and Warburton (1911) concluded that the description and figures given by Maskell (1885) for 1, eudyptidis were inadequate, and assigned the tick which Neumann (1899) had described under this name to a new species, I. neumanni. Later, however, Nuttall (1916) after an examination of a "cotype" of Maskell's, decided that I. eudyptidis was a valid species and degraded I. neumanni to synonymy with it. The inclusion of I. praecoxalis and I. intermedius in the list of synonymy is on the authority of Neumann (1904).

Cooley and Kohls (1945), however, regarded I. eudyptidis as a synonym of I. uriae as did also Zumpt (1952). Zumpt, furthermore, considered I. neumanni a good species. Dumbleton (1963), on the other hand, considered I. eudyptidis valid and published a description of the female, nymph, and larva. Dumbleton's determinations of I. eudyptidis has been supported by Arthur (1955a), but Arthur (1956b) agreed with Zumpt (1952) that I. neumanni is distinct.

The present author considers that as Nuttall (1916) is the only worker who has examined both Maskell's I. eudyptidis and Nuttall and Warburton's I. neumanni, his statement that the two are synonymous should be accepted.

The Australian ticks from E. minor, from Little Green I., were considered identical with material from Pareora gorge, New Zealand, identified as I. eudyptidis by Mr. L. J. Dumbleton. There are, however, some minor differences. Capitular and scutal measurements are larger, the spurs on the coxae and trochanters appear more rounded, and the apical region of tarsi I and IV is not as slender as in the New Zealand specimens.

I. eudyptidis is close to I. kohlsi and the differences between the two species are discussed under I. kohlsi.


The Paralysis Tick of Australia - Home

E-mail Us to report a broken link!


Main Categories